My research specializations are in timbre and popular music.


My research specializations are in timbre and popular music. My dissertation establishes a new approach to the analysis of timbre, which blends spectrogram analysis and cultural studies and ethnographies. I focused there on 1980s popular music and the Yamaha DX7 synthesizer. I am currently expanding this project to study video game soundtracks from games released for the Sega Genesis.

For future projects, I am going to expand to consider the role of drum machines in the ’80s sound, such as the Roland TR-808 Rhythm Composer, or other synthesizers available in Mason’s music technology department’s vintage synthesizer collection (!). I am beginning to explore the latest ’80s revival genres, such as vaporwave, and their interactions with music from the 1980s.

I am interested in the interactions between timbre, aesthetics, and “bad music.” Some old music is “classic,” while other old music is “dated.” What makes these distinctions? I believe the distinctions are based on timbre. I am investigating this in 1980s popular music, and also early 2000s popular music, such as the music composed by producer Max Martin (who wrote for *NSYNC, Backstreet Boys, and Britney Spears).


“What makes it sound ’80s?”: The Yamaha DX7 Electric Piano Sound

In Journal of Popular Music Studies 31/1, 2019.


Popular music of the 1980s is remembered today as having a “sound” that is somehow unified and generalizable. The ’80s sound is tied to the electric piano preset of the Yamaha DX7 synthe-sizer. Not only was this preset (E. PIANO 1) astonishingly prevalent—heard in up to 61% of #1 hits on the pop, country, and R&B Billboard charts in 1986—but the timbre of E. PIANO 1 also en-capsulates two crucial aspects of a distinctly ’80s sound in microcosm: one, technological asso-ciations with digital FM synthesis and the Yamaha DX7 as a groundbreaking ’80s synthesizer; and two, cultural positioning in a greater lineage of popular music history. This article analyzes the timbre of E. PIANO 1 by combining ethnographic study of musician language with visual anal-ysis of spectrograms, a novel combination of techniques that links acoustic specificity with social context. The web of connections created by the use and re-use of DX7 presets like E. PIANO 1, among hundreds or maybe thousands of different tracks and across genres, is something that allows modern listeners to abstract a unified notion of the ‘’80s sound’ from a diverse and eclec-tic repertoire of songs produced in the 1980s.

Timbre, Genre, and Polystylism in Sonic the Hedgehog 3

In Music and Its Unruly Entanglements, ed. Nick Braae and Kai Arne Hansen. Palgrave Macmillan, forthcoming.


In the soundtrack for the Sega Genesis game Sonic the Hedgehog 3 (1994), the genres represented include calypso, funk, carnival, new wave, prog rock, and more. Soundtracks for video games frequently shift genres this way, to create aesthetic themes for different levels or characters. Turning toward an account of the game’s soundtrack as a unified and continuous work, I posit that the music of Sonic the Hedgehog 3 might be understood as analogous to a series of “samples” within a polystylistic whole, following Leydon 2010. Leydon notes that instrumentation “bears the bulk of the semiotic burden” in communicating genre, but stops short of detailing how different instrumental timbres themselves might signify these genres. In my close analysis of two specific levels from Sonic the Hedgehog 3—Ice Cap Zone and Marble Garden Zone—I detail how timbre, as a musical parameter separate from instrumentation, can evoke specific intertextual and “extra”-musical associations from a listener, based on implied genres in the soundtrack. In doing this, I will show how timbre, a musical parameter that remains overlooked in a great deal of music analysis, might inform and enhance dialogue in music analyses of genre within video game music and more broadly.

Begging to Be Seen: Beyoncé’s Partition

Co-authored book chapter. Under review at Routledge. In Song Interpretation in 21st-century Popular Music, Vol. II, ed. Ralf von Appen, André Doehring, Dietrich Helms, and Allan F. Moore. Co-authors: Chris Kattenbeck, Sean Peterson, Holger Schwetter, and Júlia Silveira.


A New Approach to the Analysis of Timbre


Diversifying the Theory Curriculum: How to Open Multiple Pathways through the Theory Core

Joint panel with Andrew Gades and Crystal Peebles. Presented at The 2nd Pedagogy Into Practice Conference, 2019.


The standard undergraduate theory sequence (i.e., four or five courses taken during the first two years of study) leaves little room to add diverse content without either sacrificing important traditional topics or demanding too many credit hours. This panel explores three solutions to this problem by implementing a modular approach to music theory. Not only does a modular approach open the music theory core to diverse repertoires and topics, it sidesteps concerns of adding credit hours to already packed degrees. Representing music programs from a state university, a liberal arts college, and a music conservatory, our panel explores the motivations behind these modular approaches and the challenges in implementing these changes.

A common theme in each of these curricula is the diversification of the student experience in order to meet the needs of a 21st-century musician. Not only does each model engage repertoires beyond the traditional canon (pop, jazz, film music), but students also express thinking in music through diverse modes of discourse, such as exploring intersections with other disciplines, and assessment in these curricula, such as performance quizzes in a music fundamentals course. By allowing students multiple pathways through the theory core, the curriculum becomes student-centered, where students can select music courses that best meet their musical and professional needs.

Topics of discussion in this panel include: how a modular approach allows greater flexibility for faculty, students, and the institution; the paucity of teaching resources for non-standard curricula; learning outcomes and assessment; and examples of syllabi and curricular frameworks. In sharing our experiences, we hope to encourage other institutions to reconceive the curriculum as a process of opening up different pathways, rather than cramming in more topics, through the undergraduate core.

From Cheesy to Chill: The Shift in Popular Opinions of Digital Synthesis and the 1980s

Presented at the 49th Pop Culture Association and American Culture Association annual conference, 2019


In 2008, musician and critic Carrie Brownstein wrote about music of the 1980s, and described the public as having “a tacit agreement that the musical production values were cheesy – a veritable act of sonic sterilization.” Only ten years later, present-day representations of the sound of the 1980s in music, film, and TV seem to have taken a turn away from this prior agreement, toward a decidedly more fond remembrance of the ’80s sound. Somewhere within the past ten years, public opinion of ’80s music shifted and became noticeably more nostalgic. This paper begins to track this change by studing the interconnections between the digital ’80s musical aesthetic and modern reiterations, readings, and representations of that aesthetic, with the aim of exploring how the ’80s sound went from “cheesy” to “chill.” An examination of online forum discussion, popular music magazines, and similar critical media alongside scholarly discourse about the ’80s and the digital/analog divide (e.g., Pinch and Trocco 2009, Lavengood 2017) will detail where and how the ’80s-as-cheesy opinion flourished. Similar ethnographic study, complemented by musicological analysis of new media, will document the recent turn toward affection for the 1980s. Case studies will include “’80s covers” of recent pop hits found on Youtube, and the soundtracks of TV examples such as The Americans, Stranger Things, and Glow.

A New Approach to Analysis of Timbre: A Study in Timbre Narratives and Instrumentation in 1980s Pop

Presented at the 41st Annual Meeting of the Society for Music Theory; Timbre is a Many-Splendored Thing; 2018
Presented at 26th Annual Meeting of Music Theory Southeast, 2017
Winner, Best Student Paper Award


I articulate a new methodology for timbre analysis, which situates spectrogram analysis within a broad cultural context by taking direct account of listener experience, i.e., “perceptualization” (Fales 2002), through the notions of markedness (Hatten 1994). To this end, I propose timbral norms for instrumentational categories and suggest narratives that result from the transgression of these norms. I categorize sounds used in a given track into three groups, or instrumentational categories: a) core sounds, which articulate structural aspects of pitch and rhythm of the song, b) melody sounds, which are the voice and any instrument replacing the voice, or c) novelty sounds, used primarily for coloristic effects. This paper focuses on 1980s popular music; my categorization therefore was determined by analysis of many 1980s singles. A correlation arises between the timbral characteristics of these instruments and their instrumentational category: the coreand melodysounds share unmarked timbral properties, weaving into the groove’s fabric, rather than demanding attention. Noveltysounds are intrinsically difficult to generalize, but tend to feature marked timbral characteristics. Instances of subversion of timbral norms enables the analyst to locate musical meaning created through the manipulation of timbres. By showing a methodology to account for the vital role of timbre in this music’s narrative, my study demonstrates the utility of timbre analysis in music analysis at large.

Analyzing Sound, Analyzing Timbre

Presented at the 19th Biennial Conference of the International Association for the Study of Popular Music, 2017

Everything’s Synth!”: The Problem, or the Charm, of the ’80s Sound

Presented at ›Klang‹: Wundertüte oder Stiefkind der Musiktheorie (16th Annual Meeting of the Gesellschaft für Musiktheorie), 2016

Following Schenker’s Lead in the Analysis of Stravinsky

Presented at the Music Theory Society of New York State 45th Annual Meeting, 2016; 5th Biennial Student Conference of the Music Theory & Musicology Society of University of Cincinnati College-Conservatory of Music, 2014


Prolongation in post-tonal music is a notorious issue in music theory. Many have attempted to adapt Schenkerian theory to post-tonal music, but ultimately the trend has failed to catch on. This is due primarily to theoretical roadblocks most famously articulated in Straus 1987. Ironically, Schenker himself may have been the most successful in overcoming this issue when he analyzed a section of Stravinsky’s Piano Concerto in Meisterwerk Vol. II. Schenker first composed a reduction that adjusted dissonant harmonies and made them tonally normative. Thus Schenker could rely on pre-established tonal prolongations, instead of inventing new post-tonal prolongations.

Conceivably, when writing in his neoclassical style, Stravinsky could have produced his post-tonal music by distorting a prior tonal prototype. Though determining such a tonal prototype is necessarily speculative work, I argue that for this circumscribed repertoire, it’s not unreasonable for analysts to engage in this activity, and following Schenker’s lead by analyzing a tonal “prototype” is the most effective way of identifying prolongations in post-tonal music.

I analyze excerpts from the second movement of Symphony in Three Movements, an exemplar of Stravinsky’s neoclassical style, by analyzing (strictly adhering to Schenkerian techniques) a hypothetical tonal prototype of the excerpt; then, I import the resulting analysis onto the surface of the piece. Thus I create a trulyprolongational analysis, where sonorities are composed-out via clearly defined traditional Schenkerian methods. This modified approach preserves the attention to detail, insight, and coherence that make traditional Schenkerian analysis such an appealing and engaging process for the analyst.

“Oops!… I Did It Again”: Max Martin’s Complement Chorus

Presented at the Society for Music Theory 38th Annual Meeting, 2015


Max Martin, a pop producer prolific in the late 90s and early 2000s, implemented an idiosyncratic formal unit in his turn-of-the-millennium singles performed by the Backstreet Boys, *NSYNC, and Britney Spears. This unit, which I call the complement chorus, is recognizable based on distinct features of the chorus itself and its placement within the overall form of the song. The complement chorus is clearly marked as a chorus variant, using the same orchestration, harmony, and lyrics as the chorus, but introduces a new melodic line with a different rhythmic profile than theDown original chorus. A track using the complement chorus will have a chorus that is rhythmically gapped; the complement chorus in turn uses an opposing rhythmic profile that fills in these gaps. The complement chorus is always first presented after the bridge. In subsequent repetitions of the chorus, the complement chorus is layered over the regular chorus, creating a cumulative chorus. The result of layering these two melodies in the cumulative chorus is quasi-contrapuntal, with a hocket-like rhythmic profile between the two lines. This formal unit is part of Martin’s idiolect around the turn of the millennium and can perhaps be considered a kind of schema for his singles.

Rhythmic and Timbral Associations in Sufjan Stevens’s “Come On, Feel the Illinoise!”

Presented at the Society for Music Theory 36th Annual Meeting; Music Theory Society of New York State 42nd Annual Meeting; Music Theory Society of the Mid-Atlantic 11th Annual Meeting; Music Theory Forum at Florida State University 29th Annual Meeting; 2013.


The music of indie pop artist Sufjan Stevens is quickly recognizable through his use of lush textures created by using both electric instruments and acoustic orchestral instruments in Reichian counterpoint with one another, as well as his preference for asymmetrical meters. “Come On, Feel the Illinoise!”, from the album by the same name, is a representative example of Stevens’s output. The song is rather static harmonically, relying on the repetition of either a single chord or a four-chord pattern. Thus, more traditional harmony-based analytical techniques are not of interest when examining this music. Instead, Dora Hanninen’s associative sets and landscapes are a tool that elegantly relates the more salient elements of timbre and rhythm that lend this song its complexity.

Prominent associative sets are defined primarily based on rhythmic associations, and relationships are drawn between them regarding their timbre, i.e., the instrument being played. After this process, the resultant sets are arranged into an associative landscape, which shows the organization of the sets in the temporal dimension. This demonstrates several things: firstly, the music is clearly divided into two largely unrelated sections; secondly, the first section conforms to verse-chorus design, while the second section is formally elusive; thirdly, the deployment of segments within a single subset varies depending on timbre, since the voice has different segments presented horizontally (through time), while the instrumental parts present segments vertically (between instruments). These facets are elucidated through the use of associative sets in a way that other methodologies may not capture.


Review of Timbre is a Many-Splendored Thing (2018) conference

In Journal of Popular Music Studies 31/3, 2019.

Review of Robert Fink, Melinda Latour, and Zachary Wallmark (eds), The Relentless Pursuit of Tone (2018)

In Current Musicology 103, 2018.