Keywords: timbre, 1980s, popular music, Yamaha DX7, synthesizers, instrumentation, texture, form, spectrograms.
Adewunmi, Bim. 2014. “Band Aid 30: Clumsy, Patronising, and Wrong in So Many Ways.” The Guardian (November 11). https://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/nov/11/band-aid-30-patronising-bob-geldof-ebola-do-they-know-its-christmas.
Agazzari, Agostino. 1998. Of Playing upon a Bass with All Instruments and of Their Use in a Consort. In Source Readings in Music History, edited by Oliver Strunk and Leo Treitler. Translated by Oliver Strunk from Del sonare sopra ‘l basso con tutti li stromenti, e dell’uso loro nel conserto (Siena, 1607). New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 622–8.
Ahrens, Christian. 2006. “Toy Stops.” In The Organ: An Encyclopedia, ed. Douglas Busch and Richard Kassel. New York: Routledge, 571.
Anderton, Craig. 2003. “Tracking FM Synths: 20-Year-Old Tips Still Give Modern Tracks Punch.” Keyboard (July): 114.
Armbruster, Greg. 1986. “David Briggs: The Man with the Keys to Music City.” Keyboard (October): 45–6.
———. 1984. “Zawinul: Continued Hot, Chance of Record Highs.” Keyboard (March): 45, 48–9, 55–9.
Barthes, Roland. 1977. “The Grain of the Voice.” In Image Music Text, edited and translated by Stephen Heath. New York: Hill and Wang, 179–89.
———. 1972. Mythologies. Translated by Annette Lavers from Mythologies (Paris: Editions de Seuil, 1957). New York: The Noonday Press.
Bennett, Samantha. 2016. “Gus Dudgeon’s Super Sonic Signature.” In Global Glam and Popular Music: Style and Spectacle from the 1970s to the 2000s, edited by Ian Chapman and Henry Johnson. New York: Routledge, 55–68.
Berger, Harris M., and Cornelia Fales. 2005. “‘Heaviness’ in the Perception of Heavy Metal Guitar Timbres: The Match of Perceptual and Acoustic Features Over Time.” In Wired for Sound: Engineering and Technologies in Sonic Cultures, edited by Paul D. Greene and Thomas Porcello, 181–97. Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press.
Berger, Kenneth W. 1964. “Some Factors in the Recognition of Timbre.” Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 36/10: 1888-91.
Bernays, Michel and Caroline Traube. 2011. “Verbal Expression of Piano Timbre: Multidimensional Semantic Space of Adjectival Descriptors.” In Proceedings of the International Symposium on Performance Science. Utrecht, Netherlands: European Association of Conservatoires, 299–304.
Blake, David. 2014. “‘Anna’s Ghost All Around’: Timbre and Meaning in Neutral Milk Hotel’s In the Aeroplane over the Sea.” Paper presented at the joint meeting of the Society for Music Theory and the American Musicological Society, Madison, WI.
———. 2012. “Timbre as Differentiation in Indie Music.” Music Theory Online 18/2. http://mtosmt.org/issues/mto.12.18.2/mto.12.18.2.blake.php.
Boilen, Bob et al. “The ‘80s: Were They Really That Bad?”. All Songs Considered. Podcast audio, Nov. 12, 2014. http://www.npr.org/sections/allsongs/2008/09/02/94194815/the-80s-were-they-really-that-bad
Boulez, Pierre. 1987. “Timbre and Composition – Timbre and Language.” Translated by R. Robertson. Contemporary Music Review 2/1: 161–72.
Braae, Nick. 2015. “Sonic Patterns and Compositional Strategies in ‘Bohemian Rhapsody.’” Twentieth-Century Music 12/2: 173–96.
Brackett, David. 2016. Categorizing Sound: Genre and Twentieth-Century Popular Music. Oakland: University of California Press.
———. 1995. Interpreting Popular Music. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Bristow, Dave. 2013. “A Rubbery Performance…: An Innocent Pianist’s Perspective on Synthesizers (Especially FM) and Sound Design.” Presentation at the Mostly Modular Trade Association SYNTHFEST, Shoreline, WA. YouTube video, 1:14:28. Posted March 18, 2013. https://www.youtube.com/embed/pkaexAbLLFI.
Burger, Jeff. 1986. “Big Soundtrack in Little China.” Keyboard (October): 16, 30.
Burns, Lori. 2014. “Sculpting a Vocal Narrative across the Concept Album: Vocal Delivery and Treatment in P!nk’s The Truth About Love.” Paper presented at the joint meeting of the Society for Music Theory and the American Musicological Society, Madison, WI.
Busch, Eric. 2016. “Die gepitchte Stimme.” Paper presented at »Klang«: Wundertüte oder Stiefkind der Musiktheorie, annual meeting of the Gesellschaft für Musiktheorie, Hanover, Germany.
Buskin, Richard. 2011. “Classic Tracks: A-Ha ‘Take on Me.’” Sound on Sound (March). http://www.soundonsound.com/people/ha-take-me
Cateforis, Theo. 2011. Are We Not New Wave?: Modern Pop at the Turn of the 1980s. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Chapman, Jay. 1984. “Understanding the DX7.” Electronics & Music Maker (October): 70, 72.
Chowning, John M. 1973. “The Synthesis of Complex Audio Spectra by Means of Frequency Modulation.” Journal of the Audio Engineering Society 21/7: 526–534.
Cogan, Robert. 1998. Music Seen, Music Heard: A Picture Book of Musical Design. Cambridge, MA: Publication Contact International.
———. 1984. New Images of Musical Sound. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
———. 1969. “Toward a Theory of Timbre: Verbal Timbre and Musical Line in Purcell, Sessions, and Stravinsky.” Perspectives of New Music 8/1: 75–81.
Cogan, Robert and Pozzi Escot. 1976. Sonic Design: The Nature of Sound and Music. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Cornicello, Anthony M. 2000. “Timbral Organization in Tristan Murail’s ‘Désintégrations’ and ‘Rituals.’” PhD diss., Brandeis University.
Covach, John and Andrew Flory. 2014. What’s That Sound?: An Introduction to Rock and Its History. New York: W. W. Norton & Company.
Darter, Tom. 1985. “Jerry Goldsmith: A Top Film Composer Explores the World of Synthesizers.” Keyboard (February): 19–20, 22–6.
Dilliberto, John. 1988. “Eno Sense.” Music Technology (February): 50–4.
diPerna, Alan. 1984. “Dave Formula: From Punk to Techno-Rock with Magazine & Visage.” Keyboard (April): 36–40.
Dockwray, Ruth and Allen F. Moore. 2010. “Configuring the Sound-Box 1965–1972.” Popular Music 29/2: 181–97.
Doctor Who: The Two Doctors. 2011 (originally aired February 16–March 2, 1985). DVD. Directed by Peter Moffatt. London: BBC Home Entertainment.
Doerschuk, Bob and Ted Greenwald. 1986. “Q: Are We Not Progressive? A: We Are Marillion!” Keyboard (July): 19.
Doerschuk, Bob. 1987a. “Human League Takes a Crash Course in Making Hits from Jam & Lewis.” Keyboard (May): 81, 85–9.
———. 1987b. “Jam & Lewis: Grammy-Winning Keyboardists/Producers.” Keyboard (May): 74–7, 80, 82, 85.
———. 1986a. “Hit Songwriter Holly Knight Unleashes Her Keyboard Chops on Device’s 22b3.” Keyboard (April): 16.
———. 1986b. “Nick Rhodes: Idylls in Arcadia.” Keyboard (February): 70–6, 81–4, 89.
———. 1986c. “Roy Bittan: Rocking America with the Boss.” Keyboard (December): 66–80, 89.
———. 1984. “Jim Eshleman Probes the Expanding Universe of Planetarium Music.” Keyboard (October): 14–8.
Dolan, Emily. 2013. The Orchestral Revolution: Haydn and the Technologies of Timbre. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Eidsheim, Nina. 2009. “Synthesizing Race: Towards an Analysis of the Performativity of Vocal Timbre.” TRANS 13. http://www.sibetrans.com/trans/a57/synthesizing-race- towards-an-analysis-of-the-performativity-of-vocal-timbre.
Eitan, Zohar and Inbar Rothschild. 2010. “How Music Touches: Musical Parameters and Listeners’ Audio-Tactile Metaphorical Mappings.” Psychology of Music 39/4: 449–67.
Elen, Richard. “The Alan Parsons Project.” Sound on Sound (May): 36–9.
Erickson, Robert. 1975. Sound Structure in Music. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Ethington, Russ and Bill Punch. 1994. “SeaWave: A System for Musical Timbre Description.” Computer Music Journal, 18/1: 30–9.
Fales, Cornelia. 2008. “The Implicitness of Timbre: Attitudes Towards Timbre in Barundian and Western Art Musics” In Spectral World Musics: Proceedings of the Istanbul Spectral Music Conference, edited by Robert Reigle and Paul Whitehead, 63-74. Istanbul: Pan Yaymcilik.
———. 2002. “The Paradox of Timbre.” Ethnomusicology 46/1: 56–95.
Fant, Gunmar. 1970. Acoustic Theory of Speech Production, 2nd ed. The Hague: Mouton.
François, Jean-Charles. 1991. “Organization of Scattered Timbral Qualities: A Look at Edgard Varèse’s Ionisation.” Perspectives of New Music 29/1: 48–79.
Frederick, David. 1986. “Patrice Rushen: A Child Prodigy Comes Home to Jazz.” Keyboard (March): 44–8.
Fuse ODG. 2014. “Why I Had to Turn Down Band Aid.” The Guardian (November 19). https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2014/nov/19/turn-down-band-aid-bob-geldof-africa-fuse-odg.
Gilby, Paul. 1986. “Ian Boddy: Phoenix.” Sound on Sound (December): 37–41.
———. 1985. “Midge Ure: A Man with a Gift.” Sound on Sound (November): 34–9.
Gleason, Harold. 1995. Method of Organ Playing, 8th ed. Edited by Catherine Crozier Gleason. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.
Gracyk, Theodore. 1996. Rhythm and Noise: An Aesthetics of Rock. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
Greenwald, Ted. 1986. “Software: Tape Deck, Conductor, Performer, Score Paper—the Computer Does It All.” Keyboard (January): 66–80, 96–107.
Hanninen, Dora. 2012. A Theory of Music Analysis: On Segmentation and Associative Organization. Rochester: University of Rochester Press.
Hatten, Robert. 1994. Musical Meaning in Beethoven. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
Heetderks, David. 2014. “The Grain of Disorientation: Pitch Indigestibility and Divergence in Sonic Youth’s Noise Rock.” Paper presented at the joint meeting of the Society for Music Theory and the American Musicological Society, Madison, WI.
Heidemann, Kate. 2016. “A System for Describing Vocal Timbre in Popular Song.” Music Theory Online 22/1. http://www.mtosmt.org/issues/mto.16.22.1/mto.16.22.1.heidemann.html.
———. 2014. “Hearing Women’s Voices in Popular Song: Analyzing Sound and Identity in Country and Soul.” PhD diss., Columbia University.
Helmholtz, Hermann. 1863. On the Sensations of the Tone, 3rd ed. Translated by Alexander John Ellis, 1875. London: Longmans, Green, & Co.
Holm-Hudson, Kevin. 2001. “The Future Is Now … and Then: Sonic Historiography in Post-1960s Rock.” Genre 34/3–4: 243–65.
Iverson, Paul and Carol Krumhansl. 1993. “Isolating the Dynamic Attributes of Musical Timbre.” Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 94/5: 2595–603.
iZotope. 2014. “iZotope RX Reference Manual.” http://help.izotope.com/docs/rx4/Default.htm (accessed March 12, 2017).
Jakobson, Roman et al. 1963. Preliminaries to Speech Analysis, 2nd ed. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Jakobson, Roman and Linda Waugh. 2002. The Sound Shape of Language, 3rd ed. New York: Mouton de Gruyter.
JanetJacksonVEVO. 2009. “Janet Jackson – When I Think of You.” Recorded 1986. A&M Records. YouTube video, 4:47. Posted December 13. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EaleKN9GQ54
Johnson, Heather. 2007. “Classic Tracks: Tears for Fears’s ‘Everybody Wants to Rule the World.’” Mix Magazine August 2007. http://www.mixonline.com/news/profiles/classic-tracks-tears-fears-everybody-wants-rule-world/365857.
Keyboard editors. 2003. “DX7 Redux? 20 Years Later, the DX7 Still Resonates.” Keyboard (July): 40.
Krimphoff, Jochen, Stephen McAdams and Suzanne Winsberg. 1994. “Caracterisation du timbre des sons complexes. II: Analyses acoustiques et quantification psychophysique [Characterization of the timbre of complex sounds. II: Acoustic analyses and psychophysical quantification].” Journal de Physique 4/C5: 625–8.
Krumhansl, Carol. 1989. “Why Is Timbre So Hard to Understand?” In Structure and Perception of Electroacoustic Sound and Music, ed. Sören Nielzén and Olle Olsson, 43–53. Amsterdam: Elsevier.
Lacasse, Serge. 2010. “The Phonographic Voice: Paralinguistic Features and Phonographic Staging in Popular Music Singing.” In Recorded Music: Performance, Culture and Technology, ed. Amanda Bayley, 225–251. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Lerdahl, Fred. 1987. “Timbral Hierarchies.” Contemporary Music Review 2: 135–60.
Leydon, Rebecca. 2012. “Clean as a Whistle: Timbral Trajectories and the Modern Musical Sublime.” Music Theory Online 18/2. http://www.mtosmt.org/issues/mto.12.18.2/mto.12.18.2.leydon.html.
Lilly, Stephen F. 2005. “Form as an Outgrowth of Timbre and Rhythm: Wesley Fuller’s Shreds of Fire.” Perspectives of New Music 43/1: 142–70.
Malloch, Stephen. 2000. “Timbre and Technology: An Analytical Partnership.” Contemporary Music Review 19/2: 155–72.
McAdams, Stephen. 1999. “Perspectives on the Contribution of Timbre to Musical Structure.” Computer Music Journal 23/3: 85–102.
McAdams, Stephen and Bruno L. Giordano. 2008. “The Perception of Musical Timbre.” In The Oxford Handbook of Music Psychology, edited by Susan Hallam, Ian Cross, and Michael Thaut, 72–80. New York: Oxford University Press.
McCreless, Patrick. 1991. “Syntagmatics and Paradigmatics: Some Implications for the Analysis of Chromaticism in Tonal Music.” Music Theory Spectrum 13/2: 147–78.
Meyer, Leonard B. 1989. Style and Music: Theory, History and Ideology. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
Mirka, Danuta. 2001. “To Cut the Gordian Knot: The Timbre System of Krzysztof Penderecki.” Journal of Music Theory 45/2: 435–56.
Mitchell, Nathaniel. 2014. “Sharp as a Tack, Bright as a Button: Timbral Metamorphoses in Saariaho’s Sept Papillons.” Paper presented at the joint meeting of the Society for Music Theory and the American Musicological Society, Madison, WI.
Moog, Bob. 1985. “The Keyboard Explosion: Ten Amazing Years in Music Technology.” Keyboard Magazine (October): 36–48.
Moore, Allan. 2001. Rock: The Primary Text, 2nd ed. New York: Routledge.
Neal, Jocelyn. 2007. “Narrative Paradigms, Musical Signifiers, and Form as Function in Country Music.” Music Theory Spectrum 29/1: 49–72.
———. 2005. “Popular Music Analysis in American Music Theory.” Zeitschrift der Gesellschaft für Musiktheorie 2/2.
Newton, Elizabeth. 2015. “The Lossless Self.” The New Inquiry (September 21). https://thenewinquiry.com/the-lossless-self.
Olwage, Grant. 2004. “The Class and Colour of Tone: An Essay on the Social History of Vocal Timbre.” Ethnomusicology Forum 13/2: 203–26.
Osborn, Brad. 2013. “Subverting the Verse—Chorus Paradigm: Terminally Climactic Forms in Recent Rock Music.” Music Theory Spectrum 35/1: 23–47.
Owsinski, Bobby. 2006. Mixing Engineer’s Handbook, 2nd ed. Boston: Cengage Learning.
Pedersen, Paul. 1965. “The Mel Scale.” Journal of Music Theory 9/2: 295–308.
Peeters, Geoffroy. 2004. “A Large Set of Audio Features for Sound Description (Similarity and Classification) in the CUIDADO Project.” IRCAM Internal Report, Paris.
Peeters, Geoffroy et al. 2011. “The Timbre Toolbox: Extracting Audio Descriptors from Musical Signals.” Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 130/5: 2902–16.
Pinch, Trevor. 2005. “Giving Birth to New Users: How the Minimoog Was Sold to Rock and Roll.” In How Users Matter: The Co-Construction of Users and Technologies, edited by Nelly Oudshoorn and Trevor Pinch. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 247–70.
Pinch, Trevor and Frank Trocco. 2002. Analog Days: The Invention and Impact of the Moog Synthesizer. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Reed, S. Alexander. 2005. “The Musical Semiotics of Timbre in the Human Voice / Static Takes Love’s Body.” PhD diss., University of Pittsburgh.
Reynolds, Simon. 2011. “What’s Missing: The State of Pop in 1985.” In Bring the Noise: 20 Years of Writing about Hip Rock and Hip Hop. Berkeley, CA: Faber and Faber, 1–8.
Ritchie, George and George B. Stauffer. 2000. Organ Technique: Modern and Early. New York: Oxford University Press.
Rivers, Patrick. 2014. “The Mad Science of Hip-Hop: History, Technology, and Poetics of Hip-Hop’s Music, 1975–1991.” PhD diss., City University of New York.
Robjohns, Hugh. 2010. “Analogue Warmth: The Sounds of Tubes, Tapes & Transformers.” Sound On Sound (February). http://www.soundonsound.com/techniques/analogue-warmth.
Rockwell, Joti. 2007. “Drive, Lonesomeness, and the Genre of Bluegrass Music.” PhD diss., University of Chicago.
Roland. “JP-8 Owner’s Manual.” SynthDIY.com. Accessed April 6, 2017. http://www.synthdiy.com/show/?id=2337.
Roussel, Morgan. 2006. “Level 42 – Running in the Family – 1987.” Filmed March 9, 1987. YouTube video, 3:48. Posted October 28. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Vt6vWzoD8E4.
Rue, Dan and Tim Goodyer. 1990. “Fearful Symmetry.” Music Technology (June): 48–9, 51, 53.
Ryan, Kevin and Brian Kehew. 2006. Recording the Beatles: The Studio Equipment and Techniques Used to Create Their Classic Albums. Houston: Curvebender.
Saldanha, E.L. and John F. Corso. 1964. “Timbre Cues and the Identification of Musical Instruments.” Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 36: 2021–6.
Sandell, Gregory. 1995. “Roles for Spectral Centroid and Other Factors in Determining ‘Blended’ Instrument Pairings in Orchestration.” Music Perception: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 13/2: 209–46.
———. 1989. “Perception of Concurrent Timbres and Implications for Orchestration.” In Proceedings of the 1989 International Computer Music Conference, 268-74. San Francisco: International Computer Music Association.
Samarotto, Frank. 2012. “The Trope of Expectancy/Infinity in the Music of the Beatles and Others.” Paper presented at the joint meeting of the Society for Music Theory, Society for Ethnomusicology, and American Musicological Society, New Orleans, LA.
Saussure, Ferdinand de. 1959. Course in General Linguistics. Edited by Charles Bally, Albert Sechehaye, and Albert Reidlinger. Translated by Wade Baskin. New York: Philosophical Library.
Schaeffer, Pierre. 1966. Traité des objets musicaux. Paris: Éditions du Seuil.
Scotto, Ciro. 2016. “The Structural Role of Distortion in Hard Rock.” Music Theory Spectrum 38/2: 178–99.
Sethares, William. 2005. Tuning Timbre Spectrum Scale, 2nd ed. London: Springer Verlag.
Slawson, Wayne. 1987. “Sound-Color Dynamics.” Perspectives of New Music, 25/1–2, 156–81.
———. 1985. Sound Color. Berkeley: University of California Press.
———. 1981. “The Color of Sound: A Theoretical Study in Musical Timbre.” Music Theory Spectrum 3: 132–41.
Spicer, Mark. 2004. “(Ac)cumulative Form in Rock Music.” Twentieth-Century Music 1/1, 29–64.
Stanyek, Jason et al. 2014. “Forum on Transcription.” Twentieth-Century Music 11/1: 101–61.
Summers, Russ. 1986. “Mitchel Forman Rides the Train of Thought.” Keyboard (February): 20.
Tagg, Philip. 2009. Everyday Tonality, ver. 1.3. New York: The Mass Media Scholars’ Press, Inc.
Théberge, Paul. 1997. Any Sound You Can Imagine: Making Music / Consuming Technology. Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press.
Traube, Caroline and Nicolas D’Alessandro. 2005. “Vocal Synthesis and Graphical Representation of the Phonetic Gestures Underlying Guitar Timbre Description.” Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Digital Audio Effects. Madrid, Spain: 104–9.
“Uses and Abuses of Synthesizers.” 1986. Keyboard (September): 69, 148–9, 152–4.
Vail, Mark. 2005. “A conversation with Bob Moog: Analog vs. Digital Sound Generation.” Keyboard (January 1): 102.
———. 2003. “Yamaha’s FM Synths: Frequency Modulation or Fabulous Marketing?,” Keyboard (July): 46–8.
———. 2002. “Yamaha DX7 6-operator synthesizer.” Keyboard (June): 130.
Wallmark, Zachary. 2014. “Appraising Timbre: Embodiment and Affect at the Threshold of Music and Noise.” PhD diss., University of California, Los Angeles.
Wang, Oliver. 2014. “Hear the Drum Machine Get Wicked.” Journal of Popular Music Studies 26/2–3, 220–5.
Warner, Daniel. 1983. “Notes from the Timbre Space.” Perspectives of New Music, 21/1–2, 15–22.
Yamaha. “Yamaha DX7 Digital Programmable Algorithm Synthesizer: Operating Manual.” http://www.download.yamaha.com (accessed 30 May 2016).
“Yamaha DX7 Commercial Sound Banks.” Bobby Blues. Accessed April 5, 2017. http://bobbyblues.recup.ch/yamaha_dx7/dx7_soundbanks.html.
Zak, Albin J. 2001. The Poetics of Rock: Cutting Tracks, Making Records. Berkeley: University of California Press.
———. 2010. I Don’t Sound Like Nobody: Remaking Music in 1950s America. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.
Zeiner-Henriksen, Hans T. 2014. “Old Instruments, New Agendas: The Chemical Brothers and the ARP 2600.” Dancecult: Journal of Electronic Dance Music Culture 6/1: 26–40.
→ back to Dissertation page